Geology rocks!

For the second week in a row, we had snow on Tuesday! We’re so glad for the water, but our Chama Elementary and Tierra Amarilla Elementary students were again disappointed that we couldn’t go outside for our geology hike.

Since we couldn’t take our students to the rocks, we brought the rocks to our students!

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We began by reviewing the three main types of rocks. Students guessed as to what each type could look like. We made a chart with columns for each factor that students felt could help in identification. The last column was their guess as to the type of rock. We also reviewed subjective and objective observations. Students had to include at least one subjective observation and at least one objective observation.

Most students worked in groups, although a few chose to work independently. Each group got through about 15 rocks, and by the end of the exercise, everybody was doing a great job at identifying whether a rock sample was igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic.

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After becoming pros at identifying rocks, we moved on to learn about the Law of Superposition. Next time we talk about this, somebody remind me to bring a layer cake.

Utah Education Network has a fantastic activity for helping kids understand how geologists use rocks to piece together the story of Earth’s history. Our students began by trying to put the “nonsense cards,” which just have seemingly random letters on them, in some kind of order.

We didn’t give our students much information about this, aside from asking them to put the cards in some kind of order. Initially almost everybody tried alphabetical order.

Finally, with a few hints, everybody got it. If the letters represent rock layers, two layers that have the same kind of rock must belong next to each other. Students were also able to use the Law of Superposition to explain which rock layer must be the oldest.

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After everybody had discovered the pattern, we played the game again with different cards. This time the cards had different fossils on them. Students again put the cards in order based on the fossils found in each “layer”.

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This version of the activity is much more like what geologists do. Their job is to solve the puzzle of what’s happened on Earth in the past.

By the end of this class, all of our students had the same opinion…. geology rocks!

Introducing… Geology!

New Mexico (in general) is a pretty dry place. It seems like most people don’t own rain gear. We seldom have to adjust class for weather. This week was a rare exception- with all of the rain/snow, we had to move our outdoor River Classrooms for our Española 4th-6th graders, our Tierra Amarilla 5th-6th graders, and our Chama 4th-5th graders in to the classroom! Obviously being outside is much more fun than being inside, but we worked hard to come up with a fun activity to make up for it.

We decided to start one of our very favorite topics…. GEOLOGY!

To gauge how much our students understand about geology, we began by talking about the three primary types of rocks- igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. As we discussed the different types of rocks, our students created a cool foldable to stick in their science notebooks.

After cutting, gluing, and drawing, our students had a neat way to remember the three types of rocks and the rock cycle.

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Next, in order to make this concept stick, we used crayons to model the rock cycle! Students began with crayons with no wrappers. These represented igneous rocks. Students used plastic knives to carefully weather the rocks into sediment.

This sediment was converted into a sedimentary rock by lightly pressing on the sediment to replicate the weight of water on it. Students used even more pressure, as well as body heat to transform their sedimentary rock into a metamorphic rock.

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Students working on transforming their rock

Finally, the most exciting step: melting our “rocks” into “magma” and letting them cool to form “igneous rocks”!

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This student “carved” his “igneous rock” into an arrowhead as if it were obsidian!

While I’m sure our students would have preferred to be outside, we made lemonade out of lemons and had a lot of fun learning about the rock cycle in all three classes! The best part: now our students have the background knowledge for our next outdoor trip to be a geology hike!

Playing Review Games in Chama

After our really fun review game in Tierra Amarilla, we decided to put our students at Chama Elementary School to the test with a little school district competition!

We asked our Chama students the same questions. They responded in the same way- with each group writing their answer on a white board during the 1-2 minute time allotted.

Our students carefully considered each answer.

Once we mentioned how well our TA students did in answering these questions, our Chama students got a little competitive!

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A diagram AND a definition of a watershed!

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The victorious winning team

As it turns out, both classes did an excellent job answering all the questions. If we had to pick a winner, I’m not sure we could. It was a tie!

Trivia in Tierra Amarilla

River Classroom is a year-long project. We cover so much material, and every once in a while it’s nice to take a look back at the progress we’ve made. We’ve been doing just that in several of our classes for the last few weeks. What better way to see how much our students have learned than a trivia game?

Our 5th and 6th grade students at Tierra Amarilla Elementary really love competition. Our little trivia game brought out the brains of all of our students to prove just how much they remember of what we’ve covered this year.

Students were divided into teams. Each team got a white board, an eraser, and a marker. We kept score on the class board as teams had between 1 and 2 minutes to answer each question and write their answer on their team board.

 

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Discussing an answer
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Correct answers get big smiles
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Each team came up with their team name

Our students really enjoyed this game!

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As usual we were incredibly impressed at how much our students remembered. From benthic macroinvertebrates to the water cycle to parts of an atom, our students can explain a great deal of science!

Wrapping up Fall Classes

The holidays are quickly approaching, and this week we wrapped up our final River Classroom session before the winter break. Our 4th-6th grade students from the Española Public School District met at NMWC to present some fantastic projects and review everything we’ve learned this fall.

Students have been working on individual projects about elements on the Periodic Table. Many students opted to study fireworks and how different elements produce different colors. The chemistry of fireworks is a really interesting topic that fits right in with our lesson on elements in the Periodic Table, and students gave some really entertaining and informative presentations!

After each student had a chance to present his or her project, we moved on to our main attraction: a Jeopardy-style game in which teams of students answer questions related to the material we’ve covered this year!

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Categories included Water Quality, Riparian Ecosystems, The Scientific Process, Water on Earth, and Atoms and Molecules
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Miss Audrey explains the rules of the game

One of our most important rules: each team must come to a consensus before one group member can raise a hand to answer the question.

We tested the speed of students’ reflexes as they raced to raise their hands after the Jeopardy theme song stopped!

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Our students did a fantastic job and successfully answered almost every single question.

For Final Jeopardy the rules changed slightly, and each team had to make a bet for the number of points they could win or lose on each question. Teams had one minute to write their answer to earn their points!

In the end everybody in the room proved to be a brilliant scientist and remembered a great deal of what we covered during the year, so everybody won a mini Snickers bar.

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One of the most entertaining aspects of the game: the team names!

We also took a minute to recognize our fearless leader, Katherine. She founded the River Classroom program, and in the last five years she has made a tremendous impact on many students in northern New Mexico. At the end of this year, Katherine will begin a well-deserved retirement, but we are very grateful for her leadership and influence!

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Have a safe, happy holiday, and we look forward to resuming classes in 2017!

Watersheds and Erosion in Tierra Amarilla

In River Classroom we love to be outside. If we can’t be outside, we love to make a mess while we learn inside. At our last session, we did just that!

We broke into two groups to complete two different activities- one on watersheds and one on erosion. Our watershed activity began with a discussion of watersheds. What are they? Why do we care about them? Then students created their own model of mountainous terrain by crumpling up a piece of white paper. Students highlighted the “ridges” on their model in dark colors, used a spray bottle of water to simulate rain, and watched their washable marker run downhill.

This activity really clarifies the idea of a watershed, and students get to count the number of distinct watersheds in their model based on how their washable marker runs.

Our erosion activity tested three different types of soil to determine how soil characteristics affect erosion. The first sample was dirt mixed with rocks, the second sample was dirt with plants, and the third sample was just plain dirt.

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Students poured the same amount of water into each bottle and captured the run off to analyze the differences.

Students had charts in their science notebooks to organize their observations.

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The runoff from each sample was slightly different.

Students discovered that the sample with only dirt was much more susceptible to erosion. The run off from this sample was very dirty. The sample with plants had the cleanest run off. What does this mean for a riverbank with plants on it? The roots of the plants help hold the dirt in place!

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We had a great class studying watersheds and erosion, and we ended with discussions about how these concepts relate to water quality. In the spring we’ll be back to testing water quality on the Rio Chama and the Brazos River, and we’ll be applying the ideas of watersheds and erosion and how they affect turbidity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and nitrate levels.

Water Quality and Maps at Chama Elementary

Our River Classroom sessions are wrapping up for the Fall semester, and for our last class with our 4th and 5th graders at Chama Elementary, we planned two fun activities to end out the year.

Students divided into two groups for two different activities and then switched places. The first activity was to create a foldable to learn about the water quality parameters we’ll be testing on the Rio Chama later in the year.

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Folding, cutting, and drawing lines

We reviewed each of the parameters one by one as students filled in their foldables. We also came up with practical examples of factors that affect temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, turbidity, and nitrate levels at the Rio Chama near the school.

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Students were very proud of their foldables and did a great job remembering all of these new vocabulary words and what they mean for our local river.

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The second activity allowed students to expand on their knowledge of latitude and longitude as well as other important ideas about geography. Students explored a variety of different types of maps (physical maps, road maps, political maps, topographic maps) and solved critical thinking problems.

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Students applied basic math skills to calculating elevation change and used their imaginations to answer questions like “Find this latitude and longitude. What type of transportation would you be using to move through this area in January?”

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Our students did a wonderful job at each of the activities, and we can’t wait to expand on this knowledge in the spring as we begin testing water quality and exploring new areas outside.