Geology rocks!

For the second week in a row, we had snow on Tuesday! We’re so glad for the water, but our Chama Elementary and Tierra Amarilla Elementary students were again disappointed that we couldn’t go outside for our geology hike.

Since we couldn’t take our students to the rocks, we brought the rocks to our students!

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We began by reviewing the three main types of rocks. Students guessed as to what each type could look like. We made a chart with columns for each factor that students felt could help in identification. The last column was their guess as to the type of rock. We also reviewed subjective and objective observations. Students had to include at least one subjective observation and at least one objective observation.

Most students worked in groups, although a few chose to work independently. Each group got through about 15 rocks, and by the end of the exercise, everybody was doing a great job at identifying whether a rock sample was igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic.

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After becoming pros at identifying rocks, we moved on to learn about the Law of Superposition. Next time we talk about this, somebody remind me to bring a layer cake.

Utah Education Network has a fantastic activity for helping kids understand how geologists use rocks to piece together the story of Earth’s history. Our students began by trying to put the “nonsense cards,” which just have seemingly random letters on them, in some kind of order.

We didn’t give our students much information about this, aside from asking them to put the cards in some kind of order. Initially almost everybody tried alphabetical order.

Finally, with a few hints, everybody got it. If the letters represent rock layers, two layers that have the same kind of rock must belong next to each other. Students were also able to use the Law of Superposition to explain which rock layer must be the oldest.

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After everybody had discovered the pattern, we played the game again with different cards. This time the cards had different fossils on them. Students again put the cards in order based on the fossils found in each “layer”.

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This version of the activity is much more like what geologists do. Their job is to solve the puzzle of what’s happened on Earth in the past.

By the end of this class, all of our students had the same opinion…. geology rocks!

Introducing… Geology!

New Mexico (in general) is a pretty dry place. It seems like most people don’t own rain gear. We seldom have to adjust class for weather. This week was a rare exception- with all of the rain/snow, we had to move our outdoor River Classrooms for our Española 4th-6th graders, our Tierra Amarilla 5th-6th graders, and our Chama 4th-5th graders in to the classroom! Obviously being outside is much more fun than being inside, but we worked hard to come up with a fun activity to make up for it.

We decided to start one of our very favorite topics…. GEOLOGY!

To gauge how much our students understand about geology, we began by talking about the three primary types of rocks- igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. As we discussed the different types of rocks, our students created a cool foldable to stick in their science notebooks.

After cutting, gluing, and drawing, our students had a neat way to remember the three types of rocks and the rock cycle.

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Next, in order to make this concept stick, we used crayons to model the rock cycle! Students began with crayons with no wrappers. These represented igneous rocks. Students used plastic knives to carefully weather the rocks into sediment.

This sediment was converted into a sedimentary rock by lightly pressing on the sediment to replicate the weight of water on it. Students used even more pressure, as well as body heat to transform their sedimentary rock into a metamorphic rock.

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Students working on transforming their rock

Finally, the most exciting step: melting our “rocks” into “magma” and letting them cool to form “igneous rocks”!

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This student “carved” his “igneous rock” into an arrowhead as if it were obsidian!

While I’m sure our students would have preferred to be outside, we made lemonade out of lemons and had a lot of fun learning about the rock cycle in all three classes! The best part: now our students have the background knowledge for our next outdoor trip to be a geology hike!

Playing Review Games in Chama

After our really fun review game in Tierra Amarilla, we decided to put our students at Chama Elementary School to the test with a little school district competition!

We asked our Chama students the same questions. They responded in the same way- with each group writing their answer on a white board during the 1-2 minute time allotted.

Our students carefully considered each answer.

Once we mentioned how well our TA students did in answering these questions, our Chama students got a little competitive!

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A diagram AND a definition of a watershed!

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The victorious winning team

As it turns out, both classes did an excellent job answering all the questions. If we had to pick a winner, I’m not sure we could. It was a tie!

Exploration of a Bosque Ecosystem

Earlier this week our 7th-10th graders from the Española Public School District took advantage of the gorgeous spring weather and ventured out to Pilar, New Mexico to explore a bosque ecosystem along the Rio Grande.

The bosque of the Rio Grande is a lovely and unique environment that encompasses the riparian forest and floodplain around the river. Willows and cottonwood trees are common native vegetation, although invasive tamarisk has taken over in many areas.

We began the day with some time to explore and take notes about this ecosystem and its characteristics.

Students practiced making objective observations of several trees in the bosque.

Because of the recent warm temperatures and melting snowpack, the Rio Grande is running pretty high. The nearest stream gauge reported a discharge of around 1200 cfs, and the water level had been steadily rising.

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Students along the Rio Grande

 

After a quick lunch break, students hiked up to a bench in the Rio Grande Gorge. From this perspective we had a fantastic view of the bosque ecosystem, as well as the rocks that surrounded us. We discussed the geology of the area and the Rio Grande Rift.

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Exploring the rocks of the Rio Grande Gorge

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Regrouping to fill out our ecosystem worksheet

After all of this exploring, we needed a break in the shade. We took advantage of one of the gorgeous group shelters in the new Rio Grande del Norte National Monument to rest in the shade and fill out our ecosystem worksheet. We spent some time comparing this ecosystem to the others we’ve visited.

We had a fantastic trip, and our students now understand a great deal about the bosque ecosystem. Next month we’ll be on to a different location!

Measuring Velocity… Using WHAT!?

With the rapidly approaching spring melt, we are getting our classrooms out into the river as much as possible. Last Wednesday our 4th-6th graders from Española braved chilly temperatures to collect some data on the Rio Chama below Abiquiu Dam.

In our last session our students learned a new equation:

D=RT

(distance = rate × time)

Our goal for this session was to find the rate/velocity of the Rio Chama. We began by reviewing this equation and talking about different units. This discussion helped us determine which units of measure would be appropriate for measuring the speed of the river. We settled on meters per second, but our tape measures didn’t have metric units, so we had to measure in feet and convert to meters.

Our clever students were able to puzzle out how we could measure the speed of the river with this equation- we could lay out a distance and measure the speed of a floating object! We decided to use an orange. They float well, and they’re so bright that they’re easily visible for catching.

Fortunately, we had a data sheet ready to collect this very data.

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We began by taking GPS coordinates of the locations where we wanted to measure the river’s speed.

Students used rocks to delineate the beginning and end of their river segments.

We had two data collection teams. Each team had 5 jobs. One person released the orange into the river, one person timed it with a stopwatch and recorded the data, one person was responsible for catching the orange with a net, and two people were responsible for making sure the orange was released and caught at precisely the right spot.

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Double checking the measurement of our length of river.
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In some cases students had to evaluate whether it was safe to continue the measurements in the middle of the river.

We also talked about possible sources of error. Students were concerned about the exact way in which the orange was released. We tried to standardize the way we did this.

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Students enjoying cheering on the oranges as they floated down the river.

Catching the orange was not always an easy task, but our students did a great job!

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At the end of class, one of our favorite game wardens dropped by! The students were excited to show off their data and explain what they were measuring and why.

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We’re so proud of our students for braving cold water temperatures to collect this data. Everybody seemed to have a great time. The next time we meet, we’ll plot this data and compare it with the measurements we took a few years ago.

 

Wrapping up Fall Classes

The holidays are quickly approaching, and this week we wrapped up our final River Classroom session before the winter break. Our 4th-6th grade students from the Española Public School District met at NMWC to present some fantastic projects and review everything we’ve learned this fall.

Students have been working on individual projects about elements on the Periodic Table. Many students opted to study fireworks and how different elements produce different colors. The chemistry of fireworks is a really interesting topic that fits right in with our lesson on elements in the Periodic Table, and students gave some really entertaining and informative presentations!

After each student had a chance to present his or her project, we moved on to our main attraction: a Jeopardy-style game in which teams of students answer questions related to the material we’ve covered this year!

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Categories included Water Quality, Riparian Ecosystems, The Scientific Process, Water on Earth, and Atoms and Molecules
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Miss Audrey explains the rules of the game

One of our most important rules: each team must come to a consensus before one group member can raise a hand to answer the question.

We tested the speed of students’ reflexes as they raced to raise their hands after the Jeopardy theme song stopped!

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Our students did a fantastic job and successfully answered almost every single question.

For Final Jeopardy the rules changed slightly, and each team had to make a bet for the number of points they could win or lose on each question. Teams had one minute to write their answer to earn their points!

In the end everybody in the room proved to be a brilliant scientist and remembered a great deal of what we covered during the year, so everybody won a mini Snickers bar.

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One of the most entertaining aspects of the game: the team names!

We also took a minute to recognize our fearless leader, Katherine. She founded the River Classroom program, and in the last five years she has made a tremendous impact on many students in northern New Mexico. At the end of this year, Katherine will begin a well-deserved retirement, but we are very grateful for her leadership and influence!

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Have a safe, happy holiday, and we look forward to resuming classes in 2017!